Discussions on Communication Process
Discussion 1: Conditioning - Blame It All on Your Parents - All Behavior is learnt
Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner present evidence that through the process of conditioning all behavior is learnt. They came up with two learning theories, Pavlov`s classical conditioning and Skinner`s operant conditioning. According to the Skinner`s operant conditioning theory, a behavior is either reinforced or discouraged by rewarding or punishing when that behavior is observed. Students’ performance can be shaped by the reactions they face when they get a given grade in the course of their studies. Therefore, parents that always congratulate their children by giving them presents when they do well in school makes their kids perform even better.
Discussion 2: Social Psychology - Conformity to Authority, Peers and Social Expectation
As illustrated in the field of social psychology, other peoples` actions may influence the thoughts, feelings and behaviors of an individual. Conformism is the change of thinking, feeling and acting following pressure exercised by one group on the other (Moghaddam). Zimbardo`s Stanford prison experiment, Milgram’s teacher experiment and Solomon Asch’s experiments demonstrate how the actions of one group of people in authority to another group affect their conformity to authority, peers and social expectations. According to Festinger, conformity is seen as pressure towards the uniformity that the group exercises on its member (271-282). Pressure towards conformism is well illustrated by the Solomon Asch’s experiment. In the experiment there were two groups of people, the majority that were aware of the characteristic, results, and the minority unaware of anything (the critical subject). The critical subject here suffered the pressure from the majority and was faced with a dilemma when giving his opinion. The critical subject feared the attitude the majority would have on him if he gives a different opinion. It affected his judgement and response. Prejudice implies an attitude that represents a biased often negative disposition towards a person or a group. Prejudice affects our conformity to authority, to our peers and even to meeting social expectation. We always worry about how others will think and take of us.
Discussion 3: Motivation - It’s All in Your Mind - What Motivates You to Put Your Best Effort
Motivation represents the reasons for people’s actions, desires and needs. According to Maslow’s theory there four types of needs that we are always motivated to meet. They are arranged in a hierarchy to form the Maslow’s Hierarchy. He referred these needs as deficiency needs because their lack results to tension within us (Maslow 38). On the top of the list is self-actualization. It is the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming (Maslow 382). Self-actualization depending on the individual may take different forms. Personally what motivates me and makes me put my best effort in life is achievement. I work very had in my studies so that I may excel in my education, as this is my ultimate goal of self-actualization.
Discussion 4: Development - Conscious or Subconscious
The interaction of the parents and the child contributes to the conscious development of the child. The subconscious activities done by the parents shape child’s relative understanding of world and the society. Treating a child with warmth and dependable affection make the child develop a trusted view of society. Mistrust results when the child is treated with neglect and even abusively. Children view the world as an undependable place. As the children grow and gain control over their body and motor abilities the parents patience and encouragement is needed to foster autonomy in the child. Restrictive parents instill a sense of doubt and reluctance in their children when they attempt new challenges. It may delay the child development. The children develop shame and doubt about their ability to handle problems. It holds that parental sensitivity determines the security of attachment and thus of the child’s subsequent psychological adjustment.
Discussion 5: Development - Psychopathology and Therapy
In DSM-5, mental disorders are defined as a clinically significant disturbance in cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that indicate a dysfunction in mental functioning which results in disability in areas of functioning. Psychology perspectives have plausible interpretations and useful treatment implications, each applies a different internal logic, specific and distinct (Jakovljevic, 343). Dimensional perspective tries to appreciate the meaning of human behavior personhood and personality. It relates to who someone is and to their personality with vulnerability and resilience. Vulnerability-resilience model rests on the fact that some individuals are more vulnerable to mental distress. In this case, treatment is focused on helping the patient to use personality resources and strength to restore resilience and cope with the stress.
Discussion 6: What I have learnt About Myself
I have come to understand that all behavior is learnt. That I can reinforce positive and productive behavior in myself and in our community by encouraging them by means of rewarding the doers. I have come to discover that I can always resist peer pressure even if it means standing alone on my principle. I have also discovered how motivation has been fundamental in my success in school. It has always been in the thirst for self-actualization.
Festinger, Leon. Informal Social Communication. Psychological Review, 57.5 (1950): 271-282. Print.
Jakovljević Miro. Transdisciplinary holistic integrative psychiatry – A wishful thinking or Reality? Psychiatria Danubina. 20 (2008). 341-348.Print.
Kirsch, Irving. The role of cognition in classical and operant conditioning. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60.4 (2004): 369-392. Print.
Maslow, Abraham. “A Theory of Human Motivation.” Psychological Review. 50 (1943): 381. Print.
Maslow, Abraham. Motivation and Personality. 2d ed., New York: Harper & Row. 1970. Print.
Moghaddam, Fathali. Social Psychology. Exploring Universals across Cultures. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. 2003. Print.